Academic Standards


Content

external image generic_updown.gif Pennsylvania Academic Standards


Pennsylvania History


8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development
  • A. Analyze Chronological Thinking
  • -Difference between past, present and future
  • -Sequential order of historical narrative
  • -Data presented in time lines
  • -Continuity and change
  • -Context for events
  • B. Analyze and interpret historical sources.
  • -Literal meaning of historical passages
  • -Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs, and tables
  • - Different historical perspectives
  • - Data from maps, graphs and tables
  • - Visual data presented in historical evidence
  • C. Analyze the fundamentals of historical interpretation.
  • - Fact versus opinion
  • - Reasons/causes for multiple points of view
  • - Illustrations in historical documents and stories
  • - Causes and results
  • - Author or source used to develop historical narratives
  • D. Analyze and interpret historical research.
  • - Historical event (time and place)
  • - Facts, folklore and fiction
  • - Historical questions
  • - Primary sources
  • - Secondary sources
  • - Conclusions (e.g., History Day projects, mock trials, speeches)
  • - Credibility of evidence results

8.2 Pennsylvania History
  • A. Analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
  • * Political Leaders (e.g., James Buchanan, Thaddeus Stevens, Andrew Curtin)
  • * Military Leaders (e.g., George Meade, George McClellan, John Hartranft)
  • * Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., John J. Audubon, Rebecca Webb Lukens, Stephen Foster)
  • * Innovators and Reformers (e.g., George Westinghouse, Edwin Drake, Lucretia Mott)
  • B. Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
  • * Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Pennsylvania Constitutions of 1838 and 1874, The Gettysburg Address, The Pittsburgh Survey)
  • * Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Gettysburg, Eckley Miners Village, Drake's Well)
  • *The Arts and culture (e.g., Mary Cassatt, Thomas Eakins, Stephen Foster, The State Coat of Arms, decorative arts)
  • C. Identify and analyze how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from the 1787 to 1914.
  • *Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Ephrata Cloister, Harmonists, Amish, immigrant influences)
  • *Commerce and Industry (e.g., mining coal, producing iron, harvesting timber)
  • *Innovations (e.g., John Roebling┬┐s steel cable, steel-tipped plow, improved techniques for making iron, steel and glass)
  • *Politics (e.g., Fugitive Slave Act reaction, canal system legislation, The Free School Act of 1834)
  • *Settlement Patterns (e.g., farms and growth of urban centers)
  • *Social Organization (e.g., the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876, prohibition of racial discrimination in schools)
  • *Transportation (e.g., canals, National Road, Thompson┬┐s Horseshoe Curve)
  • *Women's Movement (e.g., work of the Equal Rights League of Pennsylvania)
  • D. Identify and analyze conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.
  • *Domestic Instability (e.g., impact of war, 1889 Johnstown Flood)
  • *Ethnic and Racial Relations (e.g., Christiana riots, disenfranchisement and restoration of suffrage for African-Americans, Carlisle Indian School)
  • *Labor Relations (e.g., National Trade Union, the Molly Maguires, Homestead steel strike)
  • *Immigration (e.g., Anti-Irish Riot of 1844, new waves of immigrants)
  • *Military Conflicts (e.g., Battle of Lake Erie, the Mexican War, the Civil War)

9.1 Basic Geographic Literacy
  • A. Explain geographic tools and their uses.
  • Development and use of geographic tools
  • Geographic information systems [GIS]
  • Population pyramids
  • Cartograms
  • Satellite-produced images
  • Climate graphs
  • Access to computer-based geographic data (e.g., Internet, CD-ROMs)
  • Geographic representations to track spatial patterns
  • Weather
  • Migration
  • Environmental change
  • (e.g., tropical forest reduction, sea-level changes)
  • Mental maps to organize and understand the human and physical features of the United States
  • B. Explain and locate places and regions.
  • How regions are created to interpret Earth's complexity (i.e., the differences among formal regions, functional regions, perceptual regions)
  • How characteristics contribute to regional changes (e.g., economic development, accessibility, demographic change)
  • How culture and experience influence perceptions of places and regions
  • How structures and alliances impact regions Development (e.g., First vs. Third World, North vs. South)
  • Trade (e.g., NAFTA, the European Union)
  • International treaties (e.g., NATO, OAS)
  • How regions are connected (e.g., watersheds and river systems, patterns of world trade, cultural ties, migration)

7.3 The Human Characteristics of Places and Regions
  • A. Explain the human characteristics places and regions by their population characteristics.
  • Spatial distribution, size, density and demographic characteristics of population at the state and National level Demographic structure of a
  • population (e.g., life expectancy, fertility rate, mortality rate, infant mortality rate, population growth rate, the demographic transition model)
  • Effects of different types and patterns of human movement Mobility (e.g., travel for business)
  • Migration (e.g., rural to urban, short term vs. long term, critical distance)
  • B. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their cultural characteristics.
  • Ethnicity of people at national levels (e.g., customs, celebrations,languages, religions)
  • Culture distribution (e.g., ethnic enclaves and neighborhoods)
  • Cultural diffusion (e.g., acculturation and assimilation, cultural revivals of language)
  • C. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their settlement characteristics.
  • Current and past settlement patterns in Pennsylvania and the United States
  • Forces that have re-shaped modern settlement patterns (e.g., central city decline, suburbanization, the development of transport systems)
  • Internal structure of cities (e.g., manufacturing zones, inner and outer suburbs, the location of infrastructure)
  • D. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their economic activities.
  • Spatial distribution of economic activities in Pennsylvania and the United States (e.g., patterns of agriculture, forestry, mining, retailing, manufacturing, services)
  • Factors that shape spatial patterns of economic activity both Nationally and internationally (e.g., comparative advantage in Forces for cultural convergence
  • business, accessibility, modes of transportation used to move people, goods and materials)
  • Spatial distribution of resources and their relationship to population distribution
  • Historical settlement patterns and natural resource use (e.g., waterpower sites along the Fall Line)
  • Natural resource-based industries (e.g., agriculture, mining, fishing, forestry)
  • E. Describe the human characteristics of places and regions by their political activities.
  • Spatial pattern of political units in Pennsylvania
  • Functions of political units (e.g., counties, municipalities, townships, school districts, PA General Assembly districts (House and Senate), U.S.
  • Congressional districts, states) location of economic activities; changes in resource trade; disruption of trade flows)
  • Technological changes that affect the definitions of, access to, and use of natural resources (e.g., the role of exploration, extraction, use
  • and depletion of resources)
  • E. Explain the human characteristics of places and regions by their political activities.
  • Spatial pattern of political units in the United States Geographic factors that affect decisions made in the United States (e.g., territorial expansion,
  • boundary delineation, allocation of natural resources Political and public policies that affect geography (e.g., open space, urban development)
  • e.g., the information economy,

7.4 The Interaction Between People and Places
  • A. Explain the impacts of physical systems on people.
  • How people depend on, adjust to and modify physical systems on a National scale (e.g., soil conservation programs, projects of The Corps of Engineers)
  • Ways in which people in hazardprone areas adjust their ways of life (e.g., building design in earthquake areas, dry-farming techniques in drought-prone areas)
  • B. Explain the impacts of people on physical systems.
  • Forces by which people modify the physical environment (e.g., increasing population; new agricultural techniques; industrial processes and pollution)
  • Spatial effects of activities in one region on another region (e.g., scrubbers on power plants to clean air, transportation systems such as Trans-Siberian Railroad, potential effects of fallout from nuclear power plant accidents)

  • Civics and Government

5.1 Principals and Documents of Government
  • A. Explains and identify the major arguments advanced for the necessity of government.
  • B. Describe historical examples of the importance of the rule of law.
  • Sources
  • Purposes
  • Functions
  • C. Analyze the principles and ideals that shape government.
  • Constitutional government
  • Liberal democracy
  • Classical republicanism
  • Federalism
  • E. Analyze the basic documents shaping the government of the United States.
  • Magna Carta
  • English Bill of Rights
  • Mayflower Compact
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Declaration of Independence
  • Federalist papers
  • Anti-federalist writings
  • United States Constitution
  • F. Contrast the individual rights created by the Pennsylvania Constitution and those created by the Constitution of the United States.
  • H. Explain and interpret the roles of the framers of basic documents of government from a national and Pennsylvania perspective.
  • I. Explain the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments and explain the advantages and disadvantages of systems of
  • government.
  • Confederal
  • Federal
  • Unitary
  • J.Explain how the law protects individual rights and the common good.
  • K. Explain why symbols and holidays were created and the ideals they commemorate.
  • L. Interpret Pennsylvania and United States court decisions that have impacted the principles and ideals of government.
  • M. Interpret the impact of famous speeches and writings on civic life (e.g., The Gospel of Wealth, Declaration of Sentiments).

5.2. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
  • B.Analyze citizens rights and responsibilities in local, state and national government.
  • 5.3 How Government Works
  • 5.3.9
  • A. Explain the structure, organization and operation of the local, state, and national governments including domestic and national policy-making.
  • B. Compare the responsibilities and powers of the three branches within the national government.
  • C. Explain how a bill becomes a law on a federal, state, and local level.
  • D. Explain how independent government agencies create, amend and enforce regulatory policies.
  • Local (e.g., Zoning Board)
  • State (e.g., Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission)
  • National (e.g., Federal Communications Commission)
  • E. Explain how citizens participate in choosing their leaders through political parties, campaigns and elections.
  • F. Explain the election process.
  • Voter registration
  • Primary Elections
  • Caucuses
  • Political party conventions
  • General Elections
  • Electoral College
  • G. Explain how the government protects individual rights.
  • Equal protection
  • Habeas Corpus
  • Right Against Self Incrimination
  • Double Jeopardy
  • Right of Appeal
  • Due Process
  • H. Analyze how interest groups provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process.
  • I. Analyze how and why government raises money to pay for its operation and services.
  • J. Analyze the importance of freedom of the press.

5.4. How International Relationships Function
  • C. Explain the effects the United States political ideas have had on other nations.
  • Economics

6.1. Economic Systems
  • D.Describe historical examples of expansion, recession and depression in the United States.
  • Career Education and Work

13.1. Career Awareness and Planning
  • A. Identify careers that are related to student interests, abilities and aptitudes.